Neanderthal man’s eating habits, as well as his cave art, hit the headlines this summer in the UK and further afield. New discoveries made on the edge of Europe, from sea caves at the foot of the Rock of Gibraltar, have literally been ground breaking in academic circles. Published results have shed new light on aspects of Neanderthal life, challenging previously held assumptions.
|The Rock of Gibraltar rising to 1396 feet, Africa in the distance|
Now I have a family connection to Gibraltar and have visited many times. So I have been eagerly awaiting the results from the most recent archaeological excavations. Okay, you may say, but surely Neanderthals’ diets from tens and even hundreds of thousands of years ago cannot be directly compared to a Medieval diet enjoyed between 500 - 1500 AD? Well surprisingly the two do have foods in common - including pigeon, quite possibly “roasted”.
Perhaps this is all the more surprising because Neanderthals, who became extinct about 39,000 years ago, are not even our direct ancestors!! Homo sapiens is in fact the ancestor of Modern Humans, not our hairy Homo neanderthalensis. Neanderthals were in fact only distant cousins of modern humans, reaching Europe from Africa some 300,000 years ago before Homo sapiens arrived on the scene.
Being brainier and thus more readily able to adapt to changing environmental conditions, Homo sapiens in fact contributed to Neanderthals’ eventual extinction. Actually Gibraltar, situated on the edge of Europe and presently facing Africa across just a few miles of water, is a plausible candidate as the last stronghold for Homo neanderthalensis as a species. Hunted to the point of extermination, or gradually dying out "naturally" alone in all the world - either way its a sad end of the line for this ancient ancestral hominid.
So lets get back to that, possibly, roast pigeon! The 70,000-year-old charred bones of Gibraltar’s Gorham’s Cave have many cut and tooth marks and conclusively show that rock doves - the ancestor of all today’s pigeons - were a favourite caveman delicacy. The research team speculates that a moderately skilful climber would have found it easy to snatch 'squabs’ (young birds) from their nests. Even though it must be admitted by those familiar with the Rock, that Gibraltar has some mighty sheer cliffs that would have certainly been off limits to scramblers. And probably a little vertiginous and exposed for the rock doves too!
|One inch scale Medieval/Tudor dollhouse food - roasted pigeon|
In medieval times pigeons were raised in pigeon houses and dovecotes, or in specially constructed niches in the castle walls. Pigeon eggs would rarely be eaten but instead fattened squabs, fed by industrious parents foraging nearby, would
be harvested during the long breeding year. Meat destined for the pot, pies, spit-roast or the street brazier. Medievalmorsels
Barbary Partridge - a native bird of Gibraltar
|12th scale miniature food - roast partridge|
has modelled roasted pigeons, as well as other small birds such as the partridge. Gibraltar, by the way, is also home to the Barbary Partridge, more commonly found in North Africa, which is featured on its coinage.
Earlier research from the Gorham’s cave caves showed that fish, dolphin, monk seal and mussels, as well as many types of bird, were eaten by Neanderthals. Again, not so different the Medieval diet which certainly did include plenty of fish and shellfish, as well as birds of all types, and dolphin and porpoise but probably not the feisty seal!
One last gem from Gorham’s cave. Announced just last week (2nd September) to the world's press is the oldest known example of abstract art - a series of criss-crossed lines cut into stone, looking not unlike a noughts and crosses (tic tac toe) board or, in more modern parlance, a hash-tag! Previously Neanderthals were considered incapable of abstract thought and expression. So now archaeologists admit they must redefine their perception of Neanderthal culture - even though the art is difficult to interpret.
A last thought. Which is more civilised? A tribal society of non-modern humans who share all the foods they gather or hunt? Or a society of modern humans living some 300,000 to 40,000 years later in Medieval times, who use access to food to shore up their power base - passing divisive legislation so that only a chosen few, the nobility, are allowed to eat the “best”, most refined and rarest foods?
This very morning (8 September 2014) on BBC Radio 4 the ancestry of ancient humans and the relationship of Homo sapiens to Homo neanderthalensis was being discussed. How nice to be on trend even when talking about old bones!